Kidney stones and the risk for chronic kidney disease

Andrew D. Rule, Eric J. Bergstralh, L. Joseph Melton, Xujian Li, Amy L. Weaver, John C. Lieske

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

223 Scopus citations


Background and objectives: Kidney stones lead to chronic kidney disease (CKD) in people with rare hereditary disorders (e.g., primary hyperoxaluria, cystinuria), but it is unknown whether kidney stones are an important risk factor for CKD in the general population. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Among Olmsted County, MN, residents, all stone formers (n = 4774) whose condition was diagnosed in 1986 through 2003 were matched 1:3 to control subjects (n = 12,975). Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, gender, and comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia, gout, alcohol abuse, tobacco use, coronary artery disease, heart failure, cerebral infarct, and peripheral vascular disease) were used to assess the risk for incident CKD defined as a clinical diagnosis (diagnostic codes), ESRD or death with CKD, sustained (>90 d) elevated serum creatinine (>1.3 mg/dl in men, >1.1 mg/dl in women), or sustained estimated GFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m 2. Results: During a mean of 8.6 yr of follow-up, stone formers were at increased risk for a clinical diagnosis of CKD, but an increased risk for ESRD or death with CKD was NS. Among patients with follow-up serum creatinine levels, stone formers were at increased risk for a sustained elevated serum creatinine and a sustained reduced GFR. Conclusions: Kidney stones are a risk factor for CKD, and studies are warranted to assess screening and preventive measures for CKD in stone formers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)804-811
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
Issue number4
StatePublished - May 1 2009

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
  • Nephrology
  • Transplantation


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