Kidney Cysts in Hypophosphatemic Rickets With Hypercalciuria: A Case Series

Christian Hanna, Theodora A. Potretzke, Maroun Chedid, Laureano J. Rangel, Jennifer Arroyo, Dalia Zubidat, Peter J. Tebben, Andrea G. Cogal, Vicente E. Torres, Peter C. Harris, David J. Sas, John C. Lieske, Dawn S. Milliner, Fouad T. Chebib

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Rationale & Objective: Hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria (HHRH) is a rare monogenic disorder caused by SLC34A3 pathogenic variants. HHRH is characterized by kidney phosphate wasting, hypophosphatemia, hypercalciuria, an elevated 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D level, nephrocalcinosis, and urinary stone disease. Previously, we reported a 100% prevalence of kidney cysts in the related CYP24A1 deficiency. Thus, in the current study, we characterized cysts’ presence in HHRH, another monogenic cause of hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, and urinary stone disease. Study Design: Case series. Setting & Participants: Medical records from the Mayo Clinic and the Rare Kidney Stone Consortium monogenic stone disease database were queried for patients with a genetically confirmed HHRH diagnosis. The number, sizes, and locations of kidney cysts in each patient were recorded. Results: Twelve patients with SLC34A3 pathogenic variants were identified (7 monoallelic, 5 biallelic). Of these, 5 (42%) were males, and the median (Q1, Q3) ages were 16 years (13, 35 years) at clinical presentation and 42 years (20, 57 years) at genetic confirmation. Kidney cysts were present in 9 of 12 (75%) patients, and the median (Q1, Q3) age at first cyst detection was 41 years (13, 50 years). The median number of cysts per patient was 2.0 (0.5, 3.5). Fifty percent of adult patients had a cyst number that exceeded the 97.5th percentile of an age- and sex-matched control population. All children had at least 2 or more total cysts. None had a family history of cystic kidney disease. Limitations: Retrospective study, possible selection bias, single-center experience. Conclusions: A strong association between HHRH and kidney cysts was observed. Similarities in the biochemical profiles of HHRH and CYP24A1 deficiency suggest elevated active vitamin D and hypercalciuria may be potential cystogenic factors. Further studies are needed to understand how genetic changes in SLC34A3 favor cyst formation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number100419
JournalKidney Medicine
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2022


  • Case series
  • HHRH
  • SLC34A3 gene
  • hypercalciuria
  • hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria
  • kidney cyst
  • nephrocalcinosis
  • urinary stone disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Nephrology


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