Ketamine and propofol combination (“Ketofol”) for endotracheal intubations in critically ill patients: A case series

Alice Gallo de Moraes, Carlos J. Racedo Africano, Sumedh S. Hoskote, Dereddi Raja S. Reddy, Rudy Tedja, Lokendra Thakur, Jasleen K. Pannu, Elizabeth C. Hassebroek, Nathan J. Smischney

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations



Case Series: We describe 6 cases in which the combination of ketamine and propofol (“ketofol”) was used as an induction agent for endotracheal intubation in critically ill patients with a focus on hemodynamic outcomes. All patients received a neuromuscular blocker and fentanyl, while 5 patients received midazolam. We recorded mean arterial pressure (MAP) 1 minute before induction and 15 minutes after intubation with the combination. Of the 6 patients, 5 maintained a MAP ³65 mmHg 15 minutes after intubation. One patient was on norepinephrine infusion with a MAP of 64 mmHg, and did not require an increase in the dose of the vasopressor 15 minutes after intubation. No hemodynamic complications were reported after any of the intubations.

Conclusions: This case series describes the use of the “ketofol” combination as an induction agent for intubation in critically ill patients when hemodynamic stability is desired. Further research is needed to establish the safety of this combination and how it compares to other induction medications.

Background: Endotracheal intubation is a common procedure performed for critically ill patients that can have immediate life-threatening complications. Induction medications are routinely given to facilitate the procedure, but most of these medications are associated with hypotension. While etomidate is known for its neutral hemodynamic profile, it has been linked with increased mortality in septic patients and increased morbidity in trauma patients. Ketamine and propofol are effective anesthetics with counteracting cardiovascular profiles. No data are available about the use of this combination in critically ill patients undergoing endotracheal intubation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)81-86
Number of pages6
JournalAmerican Journal of Case Reports
StatePublished - Feb 13 2015


  • Anesthetics
  • Combined
  • Critical illness
  • Drug Combinations
  • Intratracheal ketamine
  • Intubation
  • Propofol

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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