Isolated cardiac sarcoidosis: A focused review of an under-recognized entity

David R. Okada, Paco E. Bravo, Tomas Vita, Vikram Agarwal, Michael T. Osborne, Viviany R. Taqueti, Hicham Skali, Panithaya Chareonthaitawee, Sharmila Dorbala, Garrick Stewart, Marcelo Di Carli, Ron Blankstein

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

43 Scopus citations


There is accumulating evidence for the existence of a phenotype of isolated cardiac sarcoidosis (ICS), or sarcoidosis that only involves the heart. In the absence of biopsy-confirmed cardiac sarcoidosis (CS), existing diagnostic criteria require the presence of extra-cardiac sarcoidosis as an inclusion criterion for the diagnosis of CS. Consequently, in the absence of a positive endomyocardial biopsy, ICS is not diagnosable by current guidelines. Therefore, there is uncertainty regarding the epidemiology, pathobiology, clinical characteristics, prognosis, and optimal treatment of ICS. This review will summarize the available data related to the prevalence and prognosis of ICS and will discuss challenges surrounding the diagnosis and management of this under-recognized entity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1136-1146
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Nuclear Cardiology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 1 2018


  • Cardiac sarcoidosis
  • cardiac MRI
  • cardiac PET

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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