Isokinetic and isometric shoulder rotation strength in the protracted position: A reliability study

Jay Smith, Denny J. Padgett, Brian R. Kotajarvi, Joseph J. Eischen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Scapular position has been hypothesized to influence rotator cuff function, but no current methods exist to reliably measure shoulder rotation strength in different scapular positions. The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable technique to measure isokinetic (ISOK) and isometric (ISOM) shoulder rotation strength with the scapula protracted. Ten healthy volunteers (5 male, 5 female, ages 20-41) completed two to three ISOM and five ISOK (90 degrees/second) internal rotation (IR) and external rotation (ER) repetitions in a position of scapular protraction with the shoulder abducted 45 degrees in the scapular plane. Subjects returned 24-72 hours later to repeat testing. All torque measurements in the protracted position exhibited excellent intersession reliability (ICCs > 0.97). Shoulder rotational torque can be measured in the protracted scapula position with excellent reliability using the new technique described. Establishing the reliability of the protracted technique is a necessary prerequisite for the completion of future studies examining quantitative differences in rotational torque generation between the neutral and protracted scapula positions in the functional shoulder position of 45 degrees of scapular plane abduction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)119-127
Number of pages9
JournalIsokinetics and Exercise Science
Issue number2-3
StatePublished - 2001


  • Posture torque
  • Reliability
  • Rotator cuff

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


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