“Is Prediabetes a Risk Factor or Is It a Disease?"

Jacob Kohlenberg, Adrian Vella

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Prediabetes is a heterogeneous condition with variable risk of progression to type 2 diabetes. Individuals with prediabetes have abnormal glucose regulation and increased risk for developing diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2 and its complications. The diagnostic thresholds for DM are based on the bimodal distribution of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and 2-h plasma glucose during an oral glucose tolerance test and the glycemic thresholds for the development of microvascular complications, specifically retinopathy. In epidemiologic studies, isolated impaired glucose tolerance consistently has a higher prevalence than isolated IFG. The prevalence of retinopathy is significantly higher in subjects with DM, but retinopathy can develop in subjects with prediabetic range dysglycemia. Multiple studies suggest that prediabetic-range hyperglycemia is associated with higher rates of nephropathy. There is also an increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality in patients with prediabetes compared to those with normal glucose metabolism.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationClinical Dilemmas in Diabetes
Subtitle of host publicationSecond Edition
Number of pages14
ISBN (Electronic)9781119603207
ISBN (Print)9781119603160
StatePublished - Jan 1 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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