Purpose: Intratumorally injected Clostridium novyi-NT (nontoxic; lacking the alpha toxin), an attenuated strain of C. novyi, replicates within hypoxic tumor regions resulting in tumor-confined cell lysis and inflammatory response in animals, which warrants clinical investigation. Patients and Methods: This first-in-human study (NCT01924689) enrolled patients with injectable, treatment-refractory solid tumors to receive a single intratumoral injection of C. novyi-NT across 6 dose cohorts (1 104 to 3 106 spores, 3þ3 dose-escalation design) to determine dose-limiting toxicities (DLT), and the maximum tolerated dose. Results: Among 24 patients, a single intratumoral injection of C. novyi-NT led to bacterial spores germination and the resultant lysis of injected tumor masses in 10 patients (42%) across all doses. The cohort 5 dose (1 106 spores) was defined as the maximum tolerated dose; DLTs were grade 4 sepsis (n ¼ 2) and grade 4 gas gangrene (n ¼ 1), all occurring in three patients with injected tumors >8 cm. Other treatment-related grade ≥3 toxicities included pathologic fracture (n ¼ 1), limb abscess (n ¼ 1), soft-tissue infection (n ¼ 1), respiratory insufficiency (n ¼ 1), and rash (n ¼ 1), which occurred across four patients. Of 22 evaluable patients, nine (41%) had a decrease in size of the injected tumor and 19 (86%) had stable disease as the best overall response in injected and noninjected lesions combined. C. novyi-NT injection elicited a transient systemic cytokine response and enhanced systemic tumor-specific T-cell responses. Conclusions: Single intratumoral injection of C. novyi-NT is feasible. Toxicities can be significant but manageable. Signals of antitumor activity and the host immune response support additional studies of C. novyi-NT in humans.
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