Intracranial hemorrhage: Diagnosis and management

William David Freeman, Maria I. Aguilar

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is defined as bleeding within the intracranial vault and has several subtypes depending on the anatomic location of bleeding. ICH is diagnosed through history, physical examination, and, most commonly, noncontrast CT examination of the brain, which discloses the anatomic bleeding location. Trauma is a common cause. In the absence of trauma, spontaneous intraparenchymal hemorrhage is a common cause associated with hypertension when found in the deep locations such as the basal ganglia, pons, or caudate nucleus. This article addresses the diagnosis and general management of ICH and discusses specialized management for select ICH subtypes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)211-240
Number of pages30
JournalNeurologic clinics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2012


  • Epidural hematoma
  • Intracerebral hemorrhage
  • Intracranial hemorrhage
  • Intraparenchymal hemorrhage
  • Subarachnoid hemorrhage
  • Subdural hemorrhage

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology


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