Initial validation of symptom scores derived from the orthostatic discriminant and severity scale

Jacquie Baker, Justin R. Paturel, David M. Sletten, Phillip A. Low, Kurt Kimpinski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Objective: To develop a scale to quantify and discriminate orthostatic from non-orthostatic symptoms. In the current study, we present validation and reliability of orthostatic and non-orthostatic symptom scores taken from the orthostatic discriminate and severity scale (ODSS). Methods: Validity and reliability were assessed in participants with and without orthostatic intolerance. Convergent validity was assessed by correlating symptoms scores with previously validated tools [autonomic symptom profile (ASP) and the orthostatic hypotension questionnaire (OHQ)]. Clinical validity was assessed by correlating scores against standardized autonomic testing. Test–retest reliability was calculated using an intra-class correlation coefficient. Results: Convergent validity: orthostatic (OS) and non-orthostatic (NS) symptom scores from 77 controls and 67 patients with orthostatic intolerance were highly correlated with both the orthostatic intolerance index of the ASP (OS: r = 0.903; NS: r = 0.651; p < 0.001) and the composite score of the OHQ: (OS: r = 0.800; NS: r = 0.574; p < 0.001). Clinical validity: symptom scores were significantly correlated with the total composite autonomic severity score (OS: r = 0.458; NS: r = 0.315; p < 0.001), and the systolic blood pressure change during head-up tilt (OS: r = − 0.445; NS: r = − 0.354; p < 0.001). In addition, patients with orthostatic intolerance had significantly higher symptom scores compared to controls (OS: 66.5 ± 18.1 vs. 17.4 ± 12.9; NS: 19.9 ± 11.3 vs. 10.2 ± 6.8; p < 0.001, respectively). Test–retest reliability: Both orthostatic and non-orthostatic symptom scores were highly reliable (OS: r = 0.956 and NS: r = 0.574, respectively; p < 0.001) with an internal consistency of 0.978 and 0.729, respectively. Interpretation: Our initial results demonstrate that the ODSS is capable of producing valid and reliable orthostatic and non-orthostatic symptom scores. Further studies are ongoing to test sensitivity, specificity and symptom severity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)105-112
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Autonomic Research
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 11 2019


  • Autonomic dysfunction
  • Autonomic reflex screen
  • Orthostatic intolerance
  • Questionnaires

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrine and Autonomic Systems
  • Clinical Neurology


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