Information and Data Visualization Needs among Direct Care Nurses in the Intensive Care Unit

Heidi L. Lindroth, Yuliya Pinevich, Amelia K. Barwise, Sawsan Fathma, Daniel Diedrich, Brian W. Pickering, Vitaly Herasevich

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives Intensive care unit (ICU) direct care nurses spend 22% of their shift completing tasks within the electronic health record (EHR). Miscommunications and inefficiencies occur, particularly during patient hand-off, placing patient safety at risk. Redesigning how direct care nurses visualize and interact with patient information during hand-off is one opportunity to improve EHR use. A web-based survey was deployed to better understand the information and visualization needs at patient hand-off to inform redesign. Methods A multicenter anonymous web-based survey of direct care ICU nurses was conducted (9-12/2021). Semi-structured interviews with stakeholders informed survey development. The primary outcome was identifying primary EHR data needs at patient hand-off for inclusion in future EHR visualization and interface development. Secondary outcomes included current use of the EHR at patient hand-off, EHR satisfaction, and visualization preferences. Frequencies, means, and medians were calculated for each data item then ranked in descending order to generate proportional quarters using SAS v9.4. Results In total, 107 direct care ICU nurses completed the survey. The majority (46%, n = 49/107) use the EHR at patient hand-off to verify exchanged verbal information. Sixty-four percent (n = 68/107) indicated that current EHR visualization was insufficient. At the start of an ICU shift, primary EHR data needs included hemodynamics (mean 4.89 ± 0.37, 98%, n = 105), continuous IV medications (4.55 ± 0.73, 93%, n = 99), laboratory results (4.60 ± 0.56, 96%, n = 103), mechanical circulatory support devices (4.62 ± 0.72, 90%, n = 97), code status (4.40 ± 0.85, 59%, n = 108), and ventilation status (4.35 + 0.79, 51%, n = 108). Secondary outcomes included mean EHR satisfaction of 65 (0-100 scale, standard deviation = ± 21) and preferred future EHR user-interfaces to be organized by organ system (53%, n = 57/107) and visualized by tasks/schedule (61%, n = 65/107). Conclusion We identified information and visualization needs of direct care ICU nurses. The study findings could serve as a baseline toward redesigning an EHR interface.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1207-1213
Number of pages7
JournalApplied clinical informatics
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 2022


  • data visualization
  • electronic health record
  • intensive care unit
  • nurse

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Informatics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Health Information Management


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