Influence of race, income, insurance, and education on the rate of breast reconstruction

David J. Restrepo, Daniel Boczar, Maria T. Huayllani, Andrea Sisti, Emmanuel Gabriel, Sarah A. McLaughlin, Sanjay Bagaria, Aaron C. Spaulding, Brian D. Rinker, Antonio Jorge Forte

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Background/Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze how race, income, insurance, and education, affect breast reconstruction rates. Materials and Methods: We reviewed the National Cancer Database. χ2 test and binary logistic regression were used to analyze the association between demographic characteristics and reconstruction rate. Results: White race and private insurance were associated with a higher risk of getting reconstruction when compared to black race (odd ratio [OR]=0.939; 95%CI=0.909-0.970) and government insurance (OR=0.459; 95%CI=0.447-0.471). Patients with an estimated income >$63,000 were found to have higher odds of receiving breast reconstruction than patients with income less than $38,000 (OR=1.868; 95%CI=1.792-1.948). Patients who live in a zip code area with a higher education average have higher odds of receiving postmastectomy breast reconstruction than patients living in a zip code with a lower education average (OR=1.152, 95%CI=1.104-1.203). Conclusion: Differences in reconstruction rates exist based on race, income, insurance, and education level.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2969-2973
Number of pages5
JournalAnticancer research
Issue number6
StatePublished - 2019


  • Breast neoplasms/surgery
  • Female
  • Healthcare disparities/statistics & numerical data
  • Mastectomy
  • Middle aged
  • Retrospective studies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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