Objective: To evaluate the effect of tumor capsule rupture on disease prognosis in stage I epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods: All patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage I epithelial ovarian cancer operated on at the Mayo Clinic and The Ohio State University between January 1991 and December 2007 were identified. Relevant tumor characteristics, procedures performed, adjuvant therapies, and follow-up were recorded and analyzed. Inclusion criteria included comprehensive staging. Cox proportional hazards, Kaplan-Meier estimation, log rank test, and χ test were used for statistical analyses. Results: There were 161 cases that met inclusion criteria. Seventy-four (46%) patients had intact capsules without positive cytology or surface involvement; 61 (38%) had capsule rupture; 33 (20%) had positive cytology; and 22 (14%) had surface involvement. Overall, 22 of 161 (14%) patients recurred and 12 of 161 (7%) patients died of their disease. In univariable analysis, both intraoperative capsule rupture and positive cytologic washings portended worse disease-free survival (hazard ratio [HR] 3.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5-8.9; P=.004 and HR 5.2, 95% CI 2.1-12.3; P<.001, respectively) and disease-specific survival (HR 4.1, 95% CI 1.3-15.4; P=.018 and HR 5.9, 95% CI 1.8-19.3; P=.005, respectively). In multivariable analysis, capsule rupture (HR 4.2, 95% CI 1.8-10.9; P=.001) and positive cytologic washings (HR 6.4, 95% CI 2.5-16.0; P<.001) remained independent predictors of worse disease-free survival. Disease-free survival and disease-specific survival were shortest for stage IC cases with positive cytology, surface involvement, or both, that also had intraoperative rupture. Conclusion: In stage I epithelial ovarian cancer, intraoperative capsule rupture portends a higher risk of disease recurrence and death from disease. Careful intraoperative removal of ovarian masses is important, and recognizing the higher-risk nature of such cases is imperative. Level of Evidence: III.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Obstetrics and Gynecology