Purpose. In complex esophageal cases, conventional two-dimensional imaging is limited in demonstrating anatomic relationships. We describe the utility of three-dimensional (3D) printed models for complex patients to individualize care. Description. Oral effervescent agents, with positive enteric contrast, distended the esophagus during computed tomography (CT) scanning to facilitate segmentation during post-processing. The CT data were segmented, converted into a stereolithography file, and printed using photopolymer materials. Evaluation. In 1 patient with a left pneumonectomy, aortic bypass, and esophageal diversion, 3D printing enabled visualization of the native esophagus and facilitated endoscopic mucosal resection, followed by hiatal dissection and division of the gastroesophageal junction as treatment. In a second patient, 3D printing allowed enhanced visualization of multiple esophageal diverticula, allowing for optimization of the surgical approach. Conclusions. Printing of 3D anatomic models in patients with complex esophageal pathology facilitates planning the optimal surgical approach and anticipating potential difficulties for the multidisciplinary team. These models are invaluable for patient education.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine