Increased Risk for Maternal Anxiety during the COVID-19 Outbreak in Brazil among Pregnant Women without Comorbidities

Roseli Mieko Yamamoto Nomura, Ana Carla Franco Ubinha, Isabela De Paula Tavares, Maria Laura Costa, Maria Lucia Da Rocha Opperman, Marianna Facchinetti Brock, Alberto Trapani, Lia Cruz Vaz Da Costa Damásio, Nadia Stella Viegas Reis, Vera Therezinha Medeiros Borges, Alberto Carlos Moreno Zaconeta, Ana Cristina Pinheiro Fernandes De Araujo, Rodrigo Ruano

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective To study maternal anxiety in pregnant women without comorbidities in the context of the COVID-19 outbreak in Brazil and to study maternal knowledge and concerns about the pandemic. Methods This is a secondary analysis from a national multicenter cross-sectional study performed in 10 cities, from June to August, 2020, in Brazil. Interviewed postpartum women, without medical or obstetrical comorbidities, were included in the present subanalysis. A structured questionnaire and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) were applied. Results Out of the 1,662 women, 763 (45.9%) met the criteria for the current analysis and 16.1% presented with moderate and 11.5% with severe maternal anxiety. Moderate or severe maternal anxiety was associated with high school education (odds ratio [OR]:1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.04-2.40). The protective factor was cohabiting with a partner (OR: 0.46; 95%CI: 0.29-0.73). There was a positive correlation between the total BAI score and receiving information about care in the pandemic (r partial0.15; p < 0.001); concern about vertical transmission of COVID-19 (r partial0.10; p = 0.01); receiving information about breastfeeding (r partial0.08; p = 0.03); concerns about prenatal care (r partial0.10; p = 0.01), and concerns about the baby contracting COVID-19 (r partial0.11; p = 0.004). The correlation was negative in the following aspects: self-confidence in protecting from COVID-19 (r partial0.08; p = 0.04), having learned (r partial0.09; p = 0.01) and self-confidence in breastfeeding (r partial0.22; p < 0.001) in the context of the pandemic. Conclusion The anxiety of pregnant women without medical or obstetrical comorbidities was associated to high school educational level and not living with a partner during the COVID-19 pandemic. Self-confidence in protecting against COVID-19 and knowledge about breastfeeding care during the pandemic reduced maternal anxiety.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)932-939
Number of pages8
JournalRevista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetricia
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 1 2021


  • breastfeeding
  • childbirth
  • coronavirus disease 2019
  • maternal anxiety
  • pandemic
  • postpartum
  • pregnancy
  • questionnaires

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology


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