Incidence, Prevalence, and Mortality of Psychosis Associated with Parkinson's Disease (1991-2010)

Cole D. Stang, Aidan F. Mullan, Emanuele Camerucci, Mania Hajeb, Pierpaolo Turcano, Peter Martin, Michelle M. Mielke, Keith A. Josephs, Matthew Splett, Victor Abler, Bradley F. Boeve, James H. Bower, Rodolfo Savica

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD)-associated psychosis is a well-known non-motor complication, occurring years after diagnosis of PD. Incidence data vary across different studies highlighting a need for long-term observation and clinical definition. OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of psychosis in patients with PD and to investigate their survival in an incident cohort study from 1991-2010 in Olmsted County, MN. METHODS: We used the Rochester Epidemiology Project to define an incident-cohort study of parkinsonism (1991-2010) in Olmsted County, MN. A movement-disorder specialist reviewed the electronic medical records and applied diagnosis criteria to PD. Psychosis was diagnosed using of NINDS/NIMH unified criteria. RESULTS: We identified 669 cases of parkinsonism; 297 patients were clinically diagnosed with PD. 114/297 (38.4%) patients had evidence of psychosis (60% male); the median onset age of psychosis was 79.4 years. The incidence of Parkinson's disease psychosis (PDP) was 4.28/100 person-years. PDP patients had a 71% increased risk of death compared to PD patients. In PD patients without psychosis, men had 73.4% increased risk of death compared to women, whereas no significant sex difference was observed among PDP men vs. women. Of 114 patients diagnosed with psychosis, 59 were treated with antipsychotics. There was no significant difference in survival between treated and untreated patients. CONCLUSION: PDP increased the odds of death compared to PD patients. Men with PD without psychosis had greater odds of death compared to women; however, in PD with psychosis the odds of death were comparable among sexes. Lastly, treatment with anti-psychotics did not significantly affect survival.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1319-1327
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Parkinson's disease
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2022


  • Parkinsonism
  • antipsychotics
  • delirium
  • hallucinations
  • psychosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience


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