Incidence and Outcomes of Advanced Heart Failure in Adults with Congenital Heart Disease

Alexander C. Egbe, William R. Miranda, C. Charles Jain, Crystal R. Bonnichsen, Jason H. Anderson, Joseph A. Dearani, Carole A. Warnes, Juan Crestanello, Heidi M. Connolly

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: There are limited data about the stage D heart failure (advanced HF) in adults with congenital heart disease. Our study objectives were (1) to determine the incidence of new-onset advanced HF in patients and the relationship between advanced HF and all-cause mortality and (2) to determine the relationship between therapies for advanced HF and all-cause mortality. Methods: Retrospective cohort study of adults with congenital heart disease at Mayo Clinic (2003-2019). We defined advanced HF using the European Society of Cardiology diagnostic criteria for advanced HF. Therapies received by the patients with advanced HF were classified into 3 mutually exclusive groups (treatment pathways): (1) conventional cardiac intervention, (2) transplant listing, and (3) palliative care. Results: Of 5309 patients without advanced HF at baseline assessment, 432 (8%) developed advanced HF during follow-up (1.1%/y), and the incidence of advanced HF was higher in patients with severe or complex congenital heart disease. Onset of advanced HF was associated with 6-fold increase in the risk of mortality. Conventional cardiac intervention was associated with significantly higher risk of mortality as compared to transplant listing. The longer the interval from the initial onset of advanced HF to transplant evaluation, the lower the odds of being listed for transplant. Conclusions: Based on these data, we postulate that early identification of patients with advanced HF, and a timely referral for transplant evaluation (instead of conventional cardiac intervention) may offer the best chance of survival for these critically ill patients. Further studies are required to validate this postulation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)E009675
JournalCirculation: Heart Failure
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 1 2022


  • adults
  • heart disease
  • heart failure
  • incidence
  • mortality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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