In vivo oximetry using a nitroxide‐liposome system

James F. Glockner, Hsiao‐Chang ‐C Chan, Harold M. Swartz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

51 Scopus citations


Liposomes containing the deuterated, charged, aqueous soluble nitroxide 4‐trimethylammonium‐2,2,6,6‐tetramethylpiperidine‐d16‐1‐oxyl (d‐Cat1) were used as probes to measure oxygen concentrations in vivo. Following intramuscular or intraperitoneal injection of the liposome suspension, ICR mice were placed over the surface probe of a low frequency (1.1 GHz) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer. The linewidth of the deuterated nitroxide is sensitive to changes in the dissolved oxygen concentration: this parameter was calibrated separately so that linewidths measured in the injected mice could be converted into oxygen tensions. This technique detected substantial changes in pO2 as the oxygen content of the breathing gas was changed from 21 to 85 to 0%. Intravenous injection of the liposomes also is possible, and the liposomes accumulate in the liver and spleen, where detectable, oxygen‐sensitive EPR signals can be measured. © 1991 Academic Press, Inc.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)123-133
Number of pages11
JournalMagnetic Resonance in Medicine
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 1991

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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