In vitro simulation of the stance phase in human gait

Kyu Jung Kim, Harold B. Kitaoka, Zong Ping Luo, Satoru Ozeki, Lawrence J. Berglund, Kenton R. Kaufman, Kai Nan An

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

38 Scopus citations


The purpose of this study is to develop an electromechanical system for dynamic simulation of the stance phase of a human gait using cadaveric foot specimens. The system can be used for quantification of foot and ankle pathomechanics and design of foot and ankle reconstructive surgeries. Servo-pneumatic systems were used for application of the tibial weight loading and muscle loadings. A four-bar mechanism was constructed to provide the progressive motion of a tibia during the simulation while the external loadings were simultaneously applied. Muscle loadings were estimated based on the physiological cross-sectional area and normal electromyography (EMG) data with the assumption of the linear EMG-force relationship. Ad hoc tuning of the unknown muscle gains was conducted until a reasonable match with the normal vertical ground reaction force profile, center of pressure advancement, and characteristic foot motion events (heel strike, foot flat, heel rise and toe-off) could be made. Three cadaver feet and an artificial foot were tested with five repeated trials. The simulator reproduced the stance phase of a human gait in the sagittal plane with reasonable accuracy and consistency without compromising either kinematics or kinetics of the foot and ankle complex.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)113-121
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Musculoskeletal Research
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2001


  • Ankle biomechanics
  • Gait
  • In vitro
  • Neuromuscular control

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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