Implementation of whole slide imaging for clinical purposes issues to consider from the perspective of early adopters

Andrew J. Evans, Mohamed E. Salama, Walter H. Henricks, Liron Pantanowitz

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

46 Scopus citations


Context.-There is growing interest in the use of digital pathology, especially whole slide imaging, for diagnostic purposes. Many issues need to be considered when incorporating this technology into a clinical laboratory. The College of American Pathologists (CAP) established a Digital Pathology Committee to support the development of CAP programs related to digital pathology. One of its many initiatives was a panel discussion entitled "Implementing Whole-Slide Imaging for Clinical Use: What to Do and What to Avoid," given for 3 years at the CAP annual meetings starting in 2014. Objectives.-To review major issues to consider when implementing whole slide imaging for clinical purposes as covered during the panel discussion. Design.-The views expressed and recommendations given are based primarily on the personal experience of the authors as early adopters of this technology. It is not intended to be an exhaustive review of digital pathology. Results.-Implementation is best approached in phases. Early efforts are directed toward identifying initial clinical applications and assembling an implementation team. Scanner selection should be based on intended use and budget. Recognizing pathologist concerns over the use of digital pathology for diagnostic purposes, ensuring adequate training, and performing appropriate validation studies will enhance adoption. Once implemented, the transition period from glass slide to image-based diagnostics will be associated with challenges, especially those related to a hybrid glass slide-digital slide workflow. Conclusions.-With appropriate preparation, planning, and stepwise implementation, whole slide imaging can be used safely and reliably for frozen sections, consultation, quality assurance, and primary diagnosis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)944-959
Number of pages16
JournalArchives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2017

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Medical Laboratory Technology


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