We investigated the impact of the number of induction/consolidation cycles on outcomes of 3113 adult AML patients who received allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) between 2008 and 2019. Patients received allo-HCT using myeloablative (MAC) or reduced-intensity (RIC) conditioning in first complete remission (CR) or with primary induction failure (PIF). Patients who received MAC allo-HCT in CR after 1 induction cycle had 1.3-fold better overall survival (OS) than 2 cycles to CR and 1.47-fold better than ≥3 cycles. OS after CR in 2 or ≥3 cycles was similar. Relapse risk was 1.65-fold greater in patients receiving ≥3 cycles to achieve CR. After RIC allo-HCT, the number of induction cycles to CR did not affect OS. Compared to CR in 1 cycle, relapse risk was 1.24-1.41-fold greater in patients receiving 2 or ≥3 cycles. For patients receiving only 1 cycle to CR, consolidation therapy prior to MAC allo-HCT was associated with improved OS vs. no consolidation therapy. Detectable MRD at the time of MAC allo-HCT did not impact outcomes while detectable MRD preceding RIC allo-HCT was associated with an increased risk of relapse. For allo-HCT in PIF, OS was significantly worse than allo-HCT in CR after 1–3 cycles.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research