Impact of annual operator and institutional volume on percutaneous coronary intervention outcomes: A 5-year United States experience (2005-2009)

Apurva O. Badheka, Nileshkumar J. Patel, Peeyush Grover, Vikas Singh, Nilay Patel, Shilpkumar Arora, Ankit Chothani, Kathan Mehta, Abhishek Deshmukh, Ghanshyambhai T. Savani, Achint Patel, Sidakpal S. Panaich, Neeraj Shah, Ankit Rathod, Michael Brown, Tamam Mohamad, Frank V. Tamburrino, Saibal Kar, Raj Makkar, William W. O'NeillEduardo De Marchena, Theodore Schreiber, Cindy L. Grines, Charanjit S. Rihal, Mauricio G. Cohen

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

120 Scopus citations


Background-The relationship between operator or institutional volume and outcomes among patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) is unclear. Methods and Results-Cross-sectional study based on the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's Nationwide Inpatient Sample between 2005 to 2009. Subjects were identified by International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification procedure code, 36.06 and 36.07. Annual operator and institutional volumes were calculated using unique identification numbers and then divided into quartiles. Three-level hierarchical multivariate mixed models were created. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality; secondary outcome was a composite of in-hospital mortality and peri-procedural complications. A total of 457 498 PCIs were identified representing a total of 2 243 209 PCIs performed in the United States during the study period. In-hospital, all-cause mortality was 1.08%, and the overall complication rate was 7.10%. The primary and secondary outcomes of procedures performed by operators in 4th [annual procedural volume; primary and secondary outcomes] [>100; 0.59% and 5.51%], 3rd [45-100; 0.87% and 6.40%], and 2nd quartile [16-44; 1.15% and 7.75%] were significantly less (P<0.001) when compared with those by operators in the 1st quartile [≤15; 1.68% and 10.91%]. Spline analysis also showed significant operator and institutional volume outcome relationship. Similarly operators in the higher quartiles witnessed a significant reduction in length of hospital stay and cost of hospitalization (P<0.001). Conclusions-Overall in-hospital mortality after PCI was low. An increase in operator and institutional volume of PCI was found to be associated with a decrease in adverse outcomes, length of hospital stay, and cost of hospitalization.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1392-1406
Number of pages15
Issue number16
StatePublished - 2014


  • Complications
  • In-hospital mortality
  • Length of stay
  • Percutaneous coronary intervention

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)


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