Background: We examined the association of adult lung transplant candidates’ self-reported affect with transplant-related outcomes, evaluating whether a positive (vs negative) frame of mind might be protective. Method: Consenting waitlisted candidates from 6 centers completed the questionnaires including the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule annually and posttransplant. Univariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the association of baseline affect with outcomes of death or delisting. Models were subsequently adjusted for age, marital status, and education. Results: Questionnaires were completed by 169 candidates (77.9% participation). Mean positive affect, negative affect, and positive-to-negative affect ratio (positivity ratio) were similar to expected norms. The scores of the questionnaire did not change significantly over time. Fifteen (8.9%) waitlisted participants died. Candidates who died while waiting had lower positivity ratios compared to those who survived (1.82 vs 2.45; P =.02). A more negative affect was associated with increased death on the waiting list (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.10; P =.021). Conversely, a higher positivity ratio was associated with decreased death while waiting (adjusted OR: 0.45; P =.027). Conclusion: Negative affect may represent a novel risk factor for death on the waitlist. Enhancing positive affect may represent a useful target for psychological optimization in lung transplant candidates.
- emotional well-being
- lung transplant
- positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS)
- transplant waiting list
ASJC Scopus subject areas