BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Immunoglobulin G4-related disease is a systemic fibroinflammatory process of unknown etiology, characterized by tissue infiltration by immunoglobulin G4 plasma cells. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively identify the spectrum of imaging features seen in immunoglobulin G4-related disease of the orbit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 27 patients with biopsy-proved immunoglobulin G4-related disease of the orbit and either a CT or MR imaging of the orbits. These CT or MR imaging examinations were evaluated for the following: extraocular muscle size, extraocular muscle tendon enlargement, lacrimal gland enlargement, infiltrative process in the orbital fat (increased attenuation on CT or abnormal signal on MR imaging), infraorbital nerve enlargement, mucosal thickening in the paranasal sinuses, and extension of orbital findings intracranially. RESULTS: Extraocular muscles were enlarged in 24 of 27 (89%) patients, 21 (88%) bilaterally. In 32 of 45 (71%) affected orbits, the lateral rectus was the most enlarged muscle. In 26 (96%) patients, the tendons of the extraocular muscles were spared. Nineteen (70%) patients had lacrimal gland enlargement. Twelve (44%) patients had an infiltrative process within the orbital fat. Infraorbital nerve enlargement was seen in 8 (30%) patients. Twenty-four (89%) patients had sinus disease. Cavernous sinus or Meckel cave extension was seen in 3 (11%) patients. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with extraocular muscle enlargement, particularly when the tendons are spared and the lateral rectus is the most enlarged, and even more so when other noted findings are present, immunoglobulin G4 - related disease should be a leading differential consideration, even over more commonly known etiologies of extraocular muscle enlargement.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Clinical Neurology