Immunogenicity in xenogeneic scaffold generation: Antigen removal vs. decellularization

Maelene L. Wong, Leigh G. Griffiths

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

126 Scopus citations


Decades of research have been undertaken towards the goal of tissue engineering using xenogeneic scaffolds. The primary advantages associated with use of xenogeneic tissue-derived scaffolds for in vitro development of replacement tissues and organs stem from the inherent extracellular matrix (ECM) composition and architecture. Native ECM possesses appropriate mechanical properties for physiological function of the biomaterial and signals for cell binding, growth and differentiation. Additionally, xenogeneic tissue is readily available. However, translation of xenogeneic scaffold-derived engineered tissues or organs into clinical therapies requires xenoantigenicity of the material to be adequately addressed prior to implantation. Failure to achieve this goal will result in a graft-specific host immune rejection response, jeopardizing in vivo survival of the resultant scaffold, tissue or organ. This review explores (i) the appropriateness of scaffold acellularity as an outcome measure for assessing reduction of the immunological barriers to the use of xenogeneic scaffolds for tissue engineering applications and (ii) the need for tissue engineers to strive for antigen removal during xenogeneic scaffold generation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1806-1816
Number of pages11
JournalActa Biomaterialia
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2014


  • Antigen removal
  • Decellularization
  • Extracellular matrix
  • Tissue engineering
  • Xenogeneic scaffold

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Biomaterials
  • Biochemistry
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Molecular Biology


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