Immobilizing enzymes onto electrode arrays by hydrogel photolithography to fabricate multi-analyte electrochemical biosensors

Jun Yan, Valber A. Pedrosa, Aleksandr L. Simonian, Alexander Revzin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

60 Scopus citations


This paper describes a biomaterial microfabrication approach for interfacing functional biomolecules (enzymes) with electrode arrays. Poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel photopatterning was employed to integrate gold electrode arrays with the enzymes glucose oxidase (GOX) and lactate oxidase (LOX). In this process, PEG diacrylate (DA)-based prepolymer containing enzyme molecules as well as redox species (vinylferrocene) was spin-coated, registered, and UV cross-linked on top of an array of gold electrodes. As a result, enzyme-carrying circular hydrogel structures (600 μm diameter) were fabricated on top of 300 μm diameter gold electrodes. Importantly, when used with multiple masks, hydrogel photolithography allowed us to immobilize GOX and LOX molecules on adjacent electrodes within the same electrode array. Cyclic voltammetry and amperometry were used to characterize biosensor electrode arrays. The response of the biosensor array was linear for up to 20 mM glucose with sensitivity of 0.9 μA cm?2 mM?1 and 10 mM lactate with sensitivity of 1.1 μA cm?2 mM?1. Importantly, simultaneous detection of glucose and lactate from the same electrode array was demonstrated. A novel strategy for integrating biological and electrical components of a biosensor described in this paper provides the flexibility to spatially resolve and register different biorecognition elements with individual members of a miniature electrode array. Of particular interest to us are future applications of these miniature electrodes for real-time monitoring of metabolite fluxes in the vicinity of living cells.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)748-755
Number of pages8
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 24 2010


  • Enzyme-based electrodes
  • Glucose and lactate detection
  • Hydrogel micropatterning
  • Microfabrication

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science


Dive into the research topics of 'Immobilizing enzymes onto electrode arrays by hydrogel photolithography to fabricate multi-analyte electrochemical biosensors'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this