How to manage traumatic brain injury without invasive monitoring?

Daniel A. Godoy, Alejandro A. Rabinstein

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Purpose of reviewSevere traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an extremely serious health problem, especially in low-middle income countries (LMICs). The prevalence of severe TBI continues to increase in LMICs. Major limitations in the chain of care for TBI patients are common in LMICs including suboptimal or nonexistent prehospital care, overburdened emergency services, lack of trained human resources and limited availability of ICUs. Basic neuromonitoring, such as intracranial pressure, are unavailable or underutilized and advanced techniques are not available.Recent findingsAttention to fundamental principles of TBI care in LMICs, including early categorization, prevention and treatment of secondary insults, use of low-cost technology for evaluation of intracranial bleeding and neuromonitoring, and emphasis on education of human resources and multidisciplinary work, are particularly important in LMICs. Institutional collaborations between high-income and LMICs have developed evidence focused on available resources. Accordingly, an expert group have proposed consensus recommendations for centers without availability of invasive brain monitoring.SummarySevere TBI is very prevalent in LMIC and neuromonitoring is often not available in these environments. When intracranial pressure monitors are not available, careful attention to changes on clinical examination, serial imaging and noninvasive monitoring techniques can help recognize intracranial hypertension and effectively guide treatment decisions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)111-122
Number of pages12
JournalCurrent Opinion in Critical Care
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 1 2022


  • low resources
  • low-middle income countries
  • management
  • neurotrauma
  • severe traumatic brain injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine


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