Key Points 1. End-stage liver disease associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has become the leading indication for liver transplantation in the United States. 2. Patients with end-stage liver disease caused by HCV may have such associated comorbidities as chronic alcoholism, steatosis, or coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus 1 or other hepatitis viruses. These comorbidities may accelerate disease progression. 3. As chronic hepatitis C progresses to cirrhosis, the risk for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma increases; this poses difficult management problems. 4. As patients who underwent transplantation for end-stage liver disease caused by HCV infection are followed up long term, it has become clear that patient and graft survival are decreased compared with HCV-negative patients or those with cholestatic: liver disorders. 5. Risk factors associated with a worse outcome after transplantation include host, viral, donor, and posttransplantation factors. 6. Major challenges to be addressed in the future include delineation of the optimal antiviral therapy and how to handle the need to perform retransplantation on patients who develop graft dysfunction as a result of HCV recurrence.
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