Hemodynamics for the Heart Failure Clinician: A State-of-the-Art Review

Steven Hsu, James C. Fang, Barry A. Borlaug

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Heart failure (HF) fundamentally reflects an inability of the heart to provide adequate blood flow to the body without incurring the cost of increased cardiac filling pressures. This failure occurs first during the stressed state, but progresses until hemodynamic derangements become apparent at rest. As such, the measurement and interpretation of both resting and stressed hemodynamics serve an integral role in the practice of the HF clinician. In this review, we discuss conceptual and technical best practices in the performance and interpretation of both resting and invasive exercise hemodynamic catheterization, relate important pathophysiologic concepts to clinical care, and discuss updated, evidence-based applications of hemodynamics as they pertain to the full spectrum of HF conditions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)133-148
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Cardiac Failure
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2022


  • Hemodynamics
  • cardiac function
  • cardiogenic shock
  • heart failure
  • heart failure with preserved ejection fraction
  • heart failure with reduced ejection fraction
  • pulmonary hypertension

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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