Hemodilution and whole body oxygen balance during normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in dogs

B. L. Liam, W. Plochl, D. J. Cook, T. A. Orszulak, R. C. Daly

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Scopus citations


Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the minimum hematocrit value that can support whole body oxygen consumption during normothermic cardiopulmouary bypass. The effect of hemodilution on peripheral resistance, whole body oxygen delivery, and oxygen consumption was determined over a range of hematocrit values. Methods: Measurements were obtained during 38°C cardiopulmonary bypass with progressive normovolemic hemodilution (hematocrit value 40% to 9%) in nine dogs. Dextran 70 (6%) was used as a diluent. Anesthesia consisted of high-dose fentanyl and midazolam. A mean arterial pressure of 60 mm Hg was maintained throughout cardiopulmonary bypass via increases in pump flow. Results: Progressive hemodilution was associated with a decreasing total peripheral resistance. During normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass with a whole blood prime, the whole body oxygen consumption approximated values previously reported in dogs under nonbypass conditions. Oxygen delivery and whole body oxygen uptake were maintained between a hematocrit value of 39% and 25%. Significant decreases for both were seen when the hematocrit value was reduced to 18% and below. Conclusions: A hematocrit level greater than 18% was needed to maintain systemic oxygen delivery and consumption during warm cardiopulmonary bypass. The critical hematocrit value may be higher under bypass than nonbypass conditions because the flow increases that are practical during cardiopulmonary bypass do not approximate those seen in response to hemodilution of the intact circulation. Finally, the critical hematocrit value for the body may be higher than that required for the brain during warm cardiopulmonary bypass.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1203-1208
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1998

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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