Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in CSF1R-Related Leukoencephalopathy: Retrospective Study on Predictors of Outcomes

Jarosław Dulski, Michael G. Heckman, Launia J. White, Kamila Żur-Wyrozumska, Troy C. Lund, Zbigniew K. Wszolek

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Mutations in the CSF1R gene are the most common cause of adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia (ALSP), a neurodegenerative disease with rapid progression and ominous prognosis. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been increasingly offered to patients with CSF1R-ALSP. However, different therapy results were observed, and it was not elucidated which patient should be referred for HSCT. This study aimed to determine predictors of good and bad HSCT outcomes in CSF1R-ALSP. We retrospectively analyzed 15 patients, 14 symptomatic and 1 asymptomatic, with CSF1R-ALSP that underwent HSCT. Median age of onset was 39 years, and the median age of HSCT was 43 years. Cognitive impairment was the most frequent initial manifestation (43%), followed by gait problems (21%) and neuropsychiatric symptoms (21%). Median post-HSCT follow-up was 26 months. Good outcomes were associated with gait problems as initial (p = 0.041) and predominant (p = 0.017) manifestation and younger age at HSCT (p = 0.044). Cognitive impairment as first manifestation was a predictor of a bad outcome (p = 0.016) and worsening of cognition post-HSCT (p = 0.025). In conclusion, gait problems indicated a milder phenotype with better response to HSCT and good therapy outcomes. In contrast, patients with a higher burden of cognitive symptoms were most likely not to benefit from HSCT.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2778
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2022


  • ALSP
  • HSCT
  • adult-onset
  • axonal spheroids
  • bone marrow transplant
  • leukodystrophy
  • neurodegenerative
  • pigmented glia
  • white matter

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmaceutical Science


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