Hadamard-Encoded Multipulses for Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Imaging

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4 Scopus citations


The development of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) imaging offers great opportunities for new ultrasound clinical applications such as myocardial perfusion imaging and abdominal lesion characterization. In CEUS imaging, the contrast agents (i.e., microbubbles) are utilized to improve the contrast between blood and tissue based on their high nonlinearity under low ultrasound pressure. In this paper, we propose a new CEUS pulse sequence by combining Hadamard-encoded multipulses (HEM) with fundamental frequency bandpass filter (i.e., filter centered on transmit frequency). HEM consecutively emits multipulses encoded by a second-order Hadamard matrix in each of the two transmission events (i.e., pulse-echo events), as opposed to conventional CEUS methods which emit individual pulses in two separate transmission events (i.e., pulse inversion (PI), amplitude modulation (AM), and PIAM). In HEM imaging, the microbubble responses can be improved by the longer transmit pulse, and the tissue harmonics can be suppressed by the fundamental frequency filter, leading to significantly improved contrast-to-tissue ratio (CTR) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In addition, the fast polarity change between consecutive coded pulse emissions excites strong nonlinear microbubble echoes, further enhancing the CEUS image quality. The spatial resolution of HEM image is compromised as compared to other microbubble imaging methods due to the longer transmit pulses and the lower imaging frequency (i.e., fundamental frequency). However, the resolution loss was shown to be negligible and could be offset by the significantly enhanced CTR, SNR, and penetration depth. These properties of HEM can potentially facilitate robust CEUS imaging for many clinical applications, especially for deep abdominal organs and heart.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number8022925
Pages (from-to)1674-1683
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2017


  • Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) imaging
  • Hadamard encoding
  • multipulses
  • nonlinear imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Instrumentation
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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