(1) Background: Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a necrotizing vasculitis that mimics gynecologic cancer. In GPA patients, the genitourinary system is affected in <1%. The objective of the study was to provide a systematic review of the literature of GPA patients with gynecological involvement. (2) Methods: PubMed and Embase were searched from inception to July 2021 for GPA patients with gynecological involvement Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and free-text terms. Exclusion criteria were other language, review articles, pregnancy, fertility, or male patients. Data were extracted on clinical evolution, symptoms, examinations findings, diagnosis delay, treatment, outcome, patient status, and follow-up. (3) Results: Seventeen studies included data from patients with GPA and primary or relapsed gynecological involvement. 68% of the authors of this review thought the patient had cancer. The main gynecological symptom is bleeding, but exclusive gynecologic symptomatology is rare (ENT: 63%, lungs: 44%, kidneys-urinary tract: 53%). GPA could affect all areas of the genital tract, but the most frequent location is the uterine cervix. Medical treatment for GPA is effective. (4) Conclusions: GPA of the female genital tract must be considered when biopsies of an ulcerated malignant-appearing cervical or vaginal mass are negative for malignancy even when they are unspecific. Rheumatology consultation is indicated.
- Female genital tract
- Granulomatosis with polyangiitis
- Wegener granulomatosis
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Medicine (miscellaneous)