Gram-negative bacterial endocarditis in adults: State-of-the-heart

Sania S. Raza, Omer W. Sultan, Muhammad R. Sohail

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


Gram-negative endocarditis due to HACEK bacteria (Haemophilus species, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella and Kingella species) and non-HACEK organisms is an infrequent occurrence but is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Traditionally, non-HACEK Gram-negative endocarditis has been associated with injection drug use. However, emerging data from more contemporary cohorts suggest changing epidemiology and risk factors for Gram-negative endocarditis, necessitating an updated review of this subject. Moreover, optimal management, including the need for surgical intervention, and strategies for the prevention of Gram-negative endocarditis need to be revisited.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)879-885
Number of pages7
JournalExpert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2010


  • Gram-negative
  • bacilli
  • endocarditis
  • management
  • recommendations

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Virology
  • Infectious Diseases


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