Global Differences in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction: The PARAGON-HF Trial

Jasper Tromp, Brian L. Claggett, Jiankang Liu, Alice M. Jackson, Pardeep S. Jhund, Lars Køber, Jiří Widimský, Sergey A. Boytsov, Vijay K. Chopra, Inder S. Anand, Junbo Ge, Chen Huan Chen, Aldo P. Maggioni, Felipe Martinez, Milton Packer, Marc A. Pfeffer, Burkert Pieske, Margaret M. Redfield, Jean L. Rouleau, Dirk J. Van VeldhuisenFaiez Zannad, Michael R. Zile, Adel R. Rizkala, Akiko Inubushi-Molessa, Martin P. Lefkowitz, Victor C. Shi, John J.V. McMurray, Scott D. Solomon, Carolyn S.P. Lam

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a global public health problem with important regional differences. We investigated these differences in the PARAGON-HF trial (Prospective Comparison of Angiotensin Receptor Neprilysin Inhibitor With Angiotensin Receptor Blocker Global Outcomes in HFpEF), the largest and most inclusive global HFpEF trial. Methods: We studied differences in clinical characteristics, outcomes, and treatment effects of sacubitril/valsartan in 4796 patients with HFpEF from the PARAGON-HF trial, grouped according to geographic region. Results: Regional differences in patient characteristics and comorbidities were observed: patients from Western Europe were oldest (mean 75±7 years) with the highest prevalence of atrial fibrillation/flutter (36%); Central/Eastern European patients were youngest (mean 71±8 years) with the highest prevalence of coronary artery disease (50%); North American patients had the highest prevalence of obesity (65%) and diabetes (49%); Latin American patients were younger (73±9 years) and had a high prevalence of obesity (53%); and Asia-Pacific patients had a high prevalence of diabetes (44%), despite a low prevalence of obesity (26%). Rates of the primary composite end point of total hospitalizations for HF and death from cardiovascular causes were lower in patients from Central Europe (9 per 100 patient-years) and highest in patients from North America (28 per 100 patient-years), which was primarily driven by a greater number of total hospitalizations for HF. The effect of treatment with sacubitril-valsartan was not modified by region (interaction P>0.05). Conclusions: Among patients with HFpEF recruited worldwide in PARAGON-HF, there were important regional differences in clinical characteristics and outcomes, which may have implications for the design of future clinical trials.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)468-477
Number of pages10
JournalCirculation: Heart Failure
StateAccepted/In press - 2021


  • atrial fibrillation
  • coronary artery disease
  • heart failure
  • prevalence
  • risk factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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