Genetics and epigenetics of chronic rhinosinusitis

Devyani Lal, Tripti Brar, Shreya Pusapadi Ramkumar, Jingyun Li, Atsushi Kato, Luo Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Discerning the genetics and epigenetics of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) may optimize outcomes through early diagnostics, personalized and novel therapeutics, and early prognostication. CRS associated with cystic fibrosis and primary ciliary dyskinesia has well-characterized genetic mutations. Most CRS subjects, however, do not exhibit identifiable monogenic alterations. Clustering in related individuals is seen in CRS with nasal polyps. Spouses of subjects with CRS without nasal polyps also may be at increased risk of the same disease. These observations generate questions on genetic and environmental influences in CRS. Genome-wide association studies have identified variations and polymorphisms between CRS and control subjects in genes related to innate and adaptive immunity. Candidate gene and transcriptomics studies have investigated and identified genetic variations related to immunity, inflammation, epithelial barrier function, stress–response, antigen processing, T-cell regulation, and cytokines in CRS. Epigenetic studies have identified mechanisms through which environmental factors may affect these gene functions. However, causality is not determined for most variations. Inferences drawn from these data must be measured because most investigations report unreplicated results from small study populations. Large, replicated studies in tight cohorts across diverse populations remain a pressing need in studying CRS genetics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)848-868
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2023


  • CRS
  • GWAS
  • Genetics
  • RNA
  • RNA-Seq
  • chronic rhinosinusitis
  • cystic fibrosis
  • epigenetics
  • epigenomics
  • genomics
  • nasal polyps
  • primary ciliary dyskinesia
  • review
  • sinusitis
  • transcriptomics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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