G protein receptor kinase 4 polymorphisms: β-Blocker Pharmacogenetics and treatment-related outcomes in hypertension

Alexander G. Vandell, Maximilian T. Lobmeyer, Brian E. Gawronski, Taimour Y. Langaee, Yan Gong, John G. Gums, Amber L. Beitelshees, Stephen T. Turner, Arlene B. Chapman, Rhonda M. Cooper-Dehoff, Kent R. Bailey, Eric Boerwinkle, Carl J. Pepine, Stephen B. Liggett, Julie A. Johnson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

47 Scopus citations


G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) are important regulatory proteins for many G protein-coupled receptors, but little is known about GRK4 pharmacogenetics. We hypothesized that 3 nonsynonymous GRK4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, R65L (rs2960306), A142V (rs1024323), and A486V (rs1801058), would be associated with blood pressure response to atenolol, but not hydrochlorothiazide, and would be associated with long-term cardiovascular outcomes (all-cause death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke) in participants treated with an atenolol-based versus verapamil-SR-based antihypertensive strategy. GRK4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped in 768 hypertensive participants from the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses (PEAR) trial. In whites and blacks, increasing copies of the variant 65L-142V haplotype were associated with significantly reduced atenolol-induced diastolic blood pressure lowering (-9.1±6.8 versus -6.8±7.1 versus -5.3±6.4 mm Hg in participants with 0, 1, and 2 copies of 65L-142V, respectively; P=0.0088). One thousand four hundred sixty participants with hypertension and coronary artery disease from the INternational VErapamil SR/Trandolapril STudy (INVEST) were genotyped, and variant alleles of all 3 GRK4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were associated with increased risk for adverse cardiovascular outcomes in an additive fashion, with 486V homozygotes reaching statistical significance (odds ratio, 2.29 [1.48-3.55]; P=0.0002). These effects on adverse cardiovascular outcomes were independent of antihypertensive treatment. These results suggest that the presence of GRK4 variant alleles may be important determinants of blood pressure response to atenolol and risk for adverse cardiovascular events. The associations with GRK4 variant alleles were stronger in patients who were also ADRB1 389R homozygotes, suggesting a potential interaction between these 2 genes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)957-964
Number of pages8
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2012


  • ADRB1
  • G protein-coupled receptor kinase
  • atenolol
  • hypertension
  • pharmacogenetics
  • β-blocker, outcomes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine


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