Functional index-3: A valid and reliable functional outcome assessment measure in patients with dermatomyositis and polymyositis

F. C. Ernste, C. Chong, C. S. Crowson, T. A. Kermani, O. Ni Mhuircheartaigh, H. Alexanderson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Objective. Patients with dermatomyositis (DM) and polymyositis (PM) have reduced muscle endurance. The aim of this study was to streamline the Functional Index-2 (FI-2) by developing the Functional Index-3 (FI-3) and to evaluate its measurement properties, content and construct validity, and intra- and interrater reliability. Methods. A dataset of the previously performed and validated FI-2 (n = 63) was analyzed for internal redundancy, floor, and ceiling effects. The content of the FI-2 was revised into the FI-3. Construct validity and intrarater reliability of FI-3 were tested on 43 DM and PM patients at 2 rheumatology centers. Interrater reliability was tested in 25 patients. The construct validity was compared with the Myositis Activities Profile (MAP), Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), and Borg CR-10 using Spearman correlation coefficient. Results. Spearman correlation coefficients of 63 patients performing FI-3 revealed moderate to high correlations between shoulder flexion and hip flexion tasks and similar correlations with MAP and HAQ scores; there were lower correlations for neck flexion task. All FI-3 tasks had very low to moderate correlations with the Borg scale. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) of FI-3 tasks for intrarater reliability (n = 25) were moderate to good (0.88-0.98). ICC of FI-3 tasks for interrater reliability (n = 17) were fair to good (range 0.83-0.96). Conclusion. The FI-3 is an efficient and valid method for clinically assessing muscle endurance in DM and PM patients. FI-3 construct validity is supported by the significant correlations between functional tasks and the MAP, HAQ, and Borg CR-10 scores.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)94-100
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Rheumatology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2021


  • Functional index-2
  • Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies
  • Muscle endurance
  • Outcome measures

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Rheumatology
  • Immunology


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