Female Sex is Associated with Worse Outcomes following Complex Fenestrated or Branched Endovascular Aortic Repair

Brendan Gontarz, Rashad Majeed, Ilene Staff, Randall DeMartino, Akhilesh Jain, Elizabeth Aitcheson, Parth Shah, Thomas Divinagracia, James Gallagher, Laura Healy, Mouhanad Ayach, Edward Gifford

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Sex-related discrepancies after standard endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) are noted to disproportionally affect females. A growing body of literature suggests similar disparities may extend to complex fenestrated or branched endovascular aneurysm repair (FBEVAR). However, recent examination of complex FBEVAR by a consortium of high-volume centers noted equivalent mortality among sexes. Whether similar results extend to non-trial data is unknown. Methods: We examined all juxta-renal through type IV thoraco-abdominal aneurysms (sealing zones 6–8) which underwent elective FBEVAR within the Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) database from January 2012 to December 2020. Urgent, symptomatic, ruptured, and staged cases were excluded, as were parallel stent grafts. Demographics, comorbid conditions, and technical factors were compared between sexes. Univariate analysis with Wilcoxon ranked sum tests and Chi-square tests of proportion were performed, followed by multivariate logistic regression for failure of target vessel technical success, reintervention, complications, and in-hospital mortality. Results: Our analysis included 1,521 patients, 1,180 males (77.6%) and 341 females (22.4%). There were noted differences in pre-operative demographics, medical optimization, and technical aspects of the procedure. However, no difference was noted in proximal or distal sealing stents, number of fenestrations, or immediate endoleaks. On a multi variate logistic regression, female sex was an independent predictor of failure of target vessel technical success (odds ratio (OR) 3.339, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.173–5.132, P < 0.001), reintervention (OR 2.192, 95% CI: 1.304–3.683, P = 0.003), complications (OR 1.747, 95% CI: 1.282–2.381, P < 0.001), and in-hospital mortality (OR 2.836, 95% CI: 1.510–5.328, P = 0.001). Conclusions: Females suffer worse outcomes after FBEVAR despite similar extent of disease, number of fenestrations, and incidence of immediate endoleak. Notable discrepancies were higher rates of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lower rates of pre-operative aspirin, statin, and beta blocker therapy in females. Controlling for pre-operative demographics, female sex remained an independent predictor of worse outcomes. These discrepancies warrant further examination and should impact case planning for female patients undergoing complex aortic aneurysm repair.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)113-123
Number of pages11
JournalAnnals of Vascular Surgery
StatePublished - Nov 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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