Feasibility of Closed-Loop Insulin Delivery with a Pregnancy-Specific Zone Model Predictive Control Algorithm

Basak Ozaslan, Carol J. Levy, Yogish C. Kudva, Jordan E. Pinsker, Grenye O'malley, Ravinder Jeet Kaur, Kristin Castorino, Camilla Levister, Mari Charisse Trinidad, Donna Desjardins, Mei Mei Church, Mitchell Plesser, Shelly Mccrady-Spitzer, Selassie Ogyaadu, Kristen Nelson, Corey Reid, Sunil Deshpande, Walter K. Kremers, Francis J. Doyle, Barak RosennEyal Dassau

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: Evaluating the feasibility of closed-loop insulin delivery with a zone model predictive control (zone-MPC) algorithm designed for pregnancy complicated by type 1 diabetes (T1D). Research Design and Methods: Pregnant women with T1D from 14 to 32 weeks gestation already using continuous glucose monitor (CGM) augmented pump therapy were enrolled in a 2-day multicenter supervised outpatient study evaluating pregnancy-specific zone-MPC based closed-loop control (CLC) with the interoperable artificial pancreas system (iAPS) running on an unlocked smartphone. Meals and activities were unrestricted. The primary outcome was the CGM percentage of time between 63 and 140 mg/dL compared with participants' 1-week run-in period. Early (2-h) postprandial glucose control was also evaluated. Results: Eleven participants completed the study (age: 30.6 ± 4.1 years; gestational age: 20.7 ± 3.5 weeks; weight: 76.5 ± 15.3 kg; hemoglobin A1c: 5.6% ± 0.5% at enrollment). No serious adverse events occurred. Compared with the 1-week run-in, there was an increased percentage of time in 63-140 mg/dL during supervised CLC (CLC: 81.5%, run-in: 64%, P = 0.007) with less time >140 mg/dL (CLC: 16.5%, run-in: 30.8%, P = 0.029) and time <63 mg/dL (CLC: 2.0%, run-in:5.2%, P = 0.039). There was also less time <54 mg/dL (CLC: 0.7%, run-in:1.6%, P = 0.030) and >180 mg/dL (CLC: 4.9%, run-in: 13.1%, P = 0.032). Overnight glucose control was comparable, except for less time >250 mg/dL (CLC: 0%, run-in:3.9%, P = 0.030) and lower glucose standard deviation (CLC: 23.8 mg/dL, run-in:42.8 mg/dL, P = 0.007) during CLC. Conclusion: In this pilot study, use of the pregnancy-specific zone-MPC was feasible in pregnant women with T1D. Although the duration of our study was short and the number of participants was small, our findings add to the limited data available on the use of CLC systems during pregnancy (NCT04492566).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)471-480
Number of pages10
JournalDiabetes Technology and Therapeutics
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 1 2022


  • Artificial pancreas
  • Closed loop control
  • Glucose control
  • Outpatient
  • Pregnancy
  • Type 1 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology
  • Medical Laboratory Technology


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