We report on a 59-year-old man with renal amyloidosis who died after three doses of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor were administered. Noncardiac pulmonary edema was precipitated by the growth factor. Autopsy revealed amyloid in the lung not visible by plain chest radiograph. Patients with amyloidosis who are candidates for stem cell transplantation and are mobilized with growth factors must be monitored for unexpected pulmonary toxicity. We review the in vitro experimental evidence as well as the clinical data on the pulmonary toxicity of growth factors.
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