Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma: A clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and ploidy analysis of 23 cases

Andre M. Oliveira, Thomas J. Sebo, James E. McGrory, Thomas A. Gaffey, Michael G. Rock, Antonio G. Nascimento

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107 Scopus citations


Twenty-three cases of extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma, evaluated at the Mayo Clinic between 1968 and 1996, were studied for clinicopathologic features, immunohistochemical profile, Ki-67 activity, and ploidy status to identify adverse prognostic factors. Females and males were equally affected, and the median age at diagnosis was 50 years. The tumors were located mainly in the lower extremities (83%), and the median tumor size was 9.5 cm. Sixteen tumors showed low cellularity (70%), and eight tumors had high mitotic activity (more than two per 10 high-power fields). The tumors were immunoreactive for vimentin (89%), synaptophysin (72%), epithelial membrane antigen (28%), and S-100 protein (17%). Nine tumors were diploid, three aneuploid, and one tetraploid. Mean Ki-67 activity was 11% (range, 1 to 45%). The 10-year overall survival rate was 78%. On univariate analysis, tumor size ≥ 10 cm, high cellularity, presence of anaplasia or rhabdoid features, mitotic activity more than two per 10 high-power fields, Ki-67 ≥ 10%, and Ki-67 'hot spot' ≥ 25% were associated with decreased metastasis-free or overall survival. Ploidy status was not associated with any adverse outcome. The presence of any of these adverse prognostic factors can indicate the possibility of a more aggressive behavior in extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma, and a closer follow-up is suggested.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)900-908
Number of pages9
JournalModern Pathology
Issue number8
StatePublished - 2000


  • Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Ki-67
  • Ploidy
  • Prognostic factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine


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