Extranodal T- and NK-cell lymphomas

Laurence de Leval, Andrew L. Feldman, Stefano Pileri, Shigeo Nakamura, Philippe Gaulard

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Non-cutaneous extranodal NK/T cell lymphoproliferations constitute a heterogenous group of rare neoplasms, occurring primarily in the gastro-intestinal tract, nasal area, spleen, and liver. Their nomenclature refers to their usual clinical presentation and predilection for specific anatomic sites—i.e. extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal-type, hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma, primary intestinal T-cell lymphomas, indolent lymphoproliferative disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, and breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Extranodal tissues may also be involved by T-cell leukemias, or other entities usually presenting as nodal diseases. Primary extranodal entities range from indolent to highly aggressive diseases. Here, we will review the clinicopathologic features of the pertinent entities including the recent advances in their molecular and genetic characterization, with an emphasis on the changes introduced in the 2022 International Consensus Classification of lymphoid neoplasms, and highlight the diagnostic criteria helpful to sort out the distinction with potential mimickers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)245-264
Number of pages20
JournalVirchows Archiv
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2023


  • Breast implant
  • Diagnosis
  • Extranodal
  • Gastrointestinal
  • Genomics
  • International Consensus Classification
  • Spleen
  • T-cell lymphoma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology


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