Evolving treatment strategies for chronic refractory angina

Eric H. Yang, Gregory W. Barsness

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Chronic refractory angina is a term used to describe patients who, despite optimal medical therapy, have both angina and objective evidence of ischaemia. It is estimated that 5 - 15% of the 12 million patients with chronic angina in the US meet the criteria for having refractory angina. This review focuses on the following evolving pharmacological therapies for chronic refractory angina: L-arginine, ivabradine, ranolazine, nicorandil and trimetazidine. Evolving devices and invasive procedures including enhanced external counterpulsation, spinal cord stimulation, and transmyocardial revascularisation are also briefly discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)259-266
Number of pages8
JournalExpert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Issue number3
StatePublished - Feb 2006


  • Counter pulsation
  • Refractory angina
  • Spinal stimulation
  • Therapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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