Adinarayana Kunamneni, D. V. Subba Rao, Ravi Durvasula

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Dinoflagellates are key species in marine environments but remain poorly understood due to their large, complex genomes, unique molecular biology, and unresolved in-group relationships. They are the source of “red tides” that cause fish killings and shellfish poisoning. Depending on the species, their toxins can trigger paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) and Ciguatera poisoning (CP). Dinoflagellate toxins and bioactive compounds are of increasing interest because of their commercial impact, influence on safety of seafood and potential medical applications. Our understanding of the genes involved in toxin biosynthesis in dinoflagellates is currently limited due to the complex genomic features of these organisms. In evolutionary history, dinoflagellate genomes not only have undergone vertical evolution but have also been impacted by active horizontal gene transfer from their plastids, endosymbionts, as well as other organisms. The recent sequencing of various dinoflagellate transcriptomes has provided us with new valuable insights into the biosynthesis of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in dinoflagellate species. This chapter summarizes the genomics, biosynthesis and biotechnological applications of toxins and other bioactive molecules from dinoflagellates.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationDinoflagellates
Subtitle of host publicationClassification, Evolution, Physiology and Ecological Significance
PublisherNova Science Publishers, Inc.
Number of pages28
ISBN (Electronic)9781536178890
ISBN (Print)9781536178883
StatePublished - Jan 1 2020


  • bioactive applications
  • biosynthesis
  • dinoflagellates
  • genomics
  • toxins
  • transcriptomics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)


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