Estimation of Baseline Serum Creatinine with Machine Learning

Erina Ghosh, Larry Eshelman, Stephanie Lanius, Emma Schwager, Kalyan S. Pasupathy, Erin F. Barreto, Kianoush Kashani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: Comparing current to baseline serum creatinine is important in detecting acute kidney injury. In this study, we report a regression-based machine learning model to predict baseline serum creatinine. Methods: We developed and internally validated a gradient boosting model on patients admitted in Mayo Clinic intensive care units from 2005 to 2017 to predict baseline creatinine. The model was externally validated on the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care III (MIMIC III) cohort in all ICU admissions from 2001 to 2012. The predicted baseline creatinine from the model was compared with measured serum creatinine levels. We compared the performance of our model with that of the backcalculated estimated serum creatinine from the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation. Results: Following ascertainment of eligibility criteria, 44,370 patients from the Mayo Clinic and 6,112 individuals from the MIMIC III cohort were enrolled. Our model used 6 features from the Mayo Clinic and MIMIC III datasets, including the presence of chronic kidney disease, weight, height, and age. Our model had significantly lower error than the MDRD backcalculation (mean absolute error [MAE] of 0.248 vs. 0.374 in the Mayo Clinic test data; MAE of 0.387 vs. 0.465 in the MIMIC III cohort) and higher correlation (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] of 0.559 vs. 0.050 in the Mayo Clinic test data; ICC of 0.357 vs. 0.030 in the MIMIC III cohort). Discussion/Conclusion: Using machine learning models, baseline serum creatinine could be estimated with higher accuracy than the backcalculated estimated serum creatinine level.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)753-762
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican journal of nephrology
Issue number9
StatePublished - Nov 1 2021


  • Acute kidney injury
  • Baseline serum creatinine
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Kidney function
  • Machine learning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology


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