Endotheliitis, endothelin, and endothelin receptor blockers in COVID-19

Devang K. Sanghavi, Anoop Titus, Thomas R. Caulfield, W. David Freeman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We summarize the role of endothelin as a potent vasoconstrictor, pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidative agent in the pathophysiologic effects and end-organ dysfunction of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Endotheliitis is an under-recognized pathophysiologic process that causes various types of dysfunction in end organs, including heart, lung, kidney, and brain. Endothelin receptor blockers, such as bosentan and sitaxentan, can pave a path ahead in the realm of COVID-19 therapies. These agents have a potential role against COVID-19 and should be studied in research trials to determine their efficacy in treatment of this severe disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number110564
JournalMedical Hypotheses
StatePublished - May 2021


  • Bosentan
  • COVID-19
  • Endotheliitis
  • Endothelin
  • Endothelin receptor blockers
  • Sitaxentan

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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