Emerging drugs for the treatment of glaucoma: a review of phase II & III trials

Tyler M. Kaplan, Arthur J. Sit

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Introduction: Glaucoma is a progressive optic neuropathy and the leading cause of irreversible vision loss. By 2040, the number of individuals with glaucoma is expected to nearly double. The only known modifiable risk factor for glaucoma is intraocular pressure. Topical medications are often used as first-line therapies. Although there are numerous available treatments, there continues to be a need for the development of new medical therapies due to variable response, intolerable side-effect profiles in some patients, and elevated intraocular pressure refractory to other treatments. Areas covered: This review will cover glaucoma medications currently undergoing phase II and III of drug development. Expert opinion: There are numerous drugs currently in development that have demonstrated significant and clinically relevant reduction of intraocular pressure. Differentiating factors include improved tolerability, novel mechanisms of action, multiple mechanisms of action, or superior IOP reduction. However, the availability of generic prostaglandin analogs may limit adoption of these novel compounds as first-line agents, except for certain subgroups of glaucoma patients. Use as adjuvant or second-line therapy appears more likely for the majority of glaucoma patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)321-331
Number of pages11
JournalExpert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2022


  • Glaucoma
  • NCX470
  • QLS-101
  • Sepetaprost
  • Syl040012
  • aqueous suppressant
  • episcleral venous pressure
  • glaucoma medications
  • intraocular pressure
  • omidenepag isopropyl
  • razuprotafib
  • taprenepag isopropyl

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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