Embedding digital chronotherapy into bioelectronic medicines

John E. Fleming, Vaclav Kremen, Ro'ee Gilron, Nicholas M. Gregg, Mayela Zamora, Derk Jan Dijk, Philip A. Starr, Gregory A. Worrell, Simon Little, Timothy J. Denison

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Biological rhythms pervade physiology and pathophysiology across multiple timescales. Because of the limited sensing and algorithm capabilities of neuromodulation device technology to-date, insight into the influence of these rhythms on the efficacy of bioelectronic medicine has been infeasible. As the development of new devices begins to mitigate previous technology limitations, we propose that future devices should integrate chronobiological considerations in their control structures to maximize the benefits of neuromodulation therapy. We motivate this proposition with preliminary longitudinal data recorded from patients with Parkinson's disease and epilepsy during deep brain stimulation therapy, where periodic symptom biomarkers are synchronized to sub-daily, daily, and longer timescale rhythms. We suggest a physiological control structure for future bioelectronic devices that incorporates time-based adaptation of stimulation control, locked to patient-specific biological rhythms, as an adjunct to classical control methods and illustrate the concept with initial results from three of our recent case studies using chronotherapy-enabled prototypes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number104028
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 15 2022


  • Bioelectronics
  • Biological sciences
  • Biotechnology
  • Neuroscience

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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