Effect of canopy shape on physical load when holding an umbrella

Lottie F.M. Kuijt-Evers, Reinier Könemann, M. Susan Hallbeck

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of the canopy shape of an umbrella on physical load when holding the umbrella in different circumstances. For this purpose, thirteen subjects participated in this study and muscle activity of seven muscles of the upper limb (including the forearm) was measured for 5 wind speeds (4, 5, 6, 7, 8 Bft) and two wind directions (front and side). From the results, it was seen that for the p50 value of the muscle activity, the umbrella with the asymmetric canopy required 62% and for the p90 value of the muscle activity 74% of the muscle activity, on average, over all wind speeds - compared to the traditional umbrella. Based on these results, we can conclude that the physical load of holding the traditional umbrella is significantly higher than holding the umbrella with the asymmetric canopy shape in windy conditions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)142-150
Number of pages9
JournalApplied Ergonomics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2013


  • %MVC
  • Grip force
  • Muscle activity
  • Physical load
  • Umbrella
  • Upper limb

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Human Factors and Ergonomics
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)


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