Echocardiographic predictors of severe right ventricular diastolic dysfunction in tetralogy of Fallot: Relations to patient outcomes

Alexander C. Egbe, Patricia A. Pellikka, William R. Miranda, Crystal Bonnichsen, Yogesh N.V. Reddy, Barry A. Borlaug, Heidi M. Connolly

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Background: Previous studies have described echocardiographic indices of right ventricular (RV) diastolic function in patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) but these indices have not been validated against invasive hemodynamic data. The purpose of this study was to determine echocardiographic predictors of severe RV diastolic dysfunction, and the impact of severe RV diastolic dysfunction on transplant-free survival. Methods: Cohort study of TOF patients that underwent non-simultaneous cardiac catheterization and echocardiogram at Mayo Clinic. Based on prior studies we selected these indices for assessment: tricuspid E/A, E/e’, deceleration time, pulmonary artery forward flow, dilated inferior vena cava (IVC), and hepatic vein diastolic flow reversal (HVDFR). RV diastolic function classes (normal, mild/moderate and severe dysfunction) were created using arbitrary cut-off points of the median values of right ventricular end-diastolic pressure (RVEDP) and right atrial pressure (RAP) for the cohort. Results: Among 173 patients (age 40 ± 13 years), 68 patients were classified as normal (RVEDP≤14 and RAP≤10), 37 as mild/moderate dysfunction (either RVEDP>14 or RAP>10), and 69 as severe dysfunction (RVEDP>14 and RAP>10). Of the indices assessed, dilated IVC had the best sensitivity of 95% (area under the curve [AUC] 0.689) while HVDFR had the best specificity of 69% (AUC 0.648) for detecting severe RV diastolic dysfunction. Severe RV diastolic dysfunction was an independent risk factor for death/transplant (hazard ratio 2.83, p = 0.009). Conclusion: Severe RV diastolic dysfunction, as defined by invasive hemodynamic indices, was associated with poor prognosis. Echocardiographic indices can identify these high risk patients, and hence improve risk stratification in clinical practice.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)49-55
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Cardiology
StatePublished - May 1 2020


  • Restrictive physiology
  • Right ventricular compliance
  • Tetralogy of Fallot

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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